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PHJ No 3 (35) 2022 – Å. Egge. Soviet diplomacy in Norway and Sweden during the interwar period — the role of Alexandra Kollontai

This article analyzes the activities of Soviet diplomacy in Norway and Sweden during the interwar period and the role of Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai in the development of Soviet-Norwegian and Soviet-Swedish relations during those years. Between 1923 and 1930 and in Sweden from 1930 to 1945 Kollontai was chief of the Soviet diplomatic mission in Norway. Kollontai actively established contacts and promoted initiatives that could enhance the prestige of the Soviet Union. She possessed a tremendous capacity for work and open-mindedness. Kollontai always remained loyal to her country. However, she had an independent mind and did not hesitate to voice her own opinion and give advice to her superiors.

PHJ No 3 (35) 2022 – S. I. Grigoriev. “…The independence of the Tatars in Crimea is unreliable for us…”: when did St. Petersburg actually decide to annex Crimea to Russia?

The article analyzes the process of formation and subsequent changes in the views of Empress Catherine II and the top leadership of Russia on the “Crimean question” in the 1770s: from the desire to proclaim an independent state in Crimea (1769), through the approval of the actual protectorate of the Russian Empire over the Crimean Khanate (1777) — to the adoption of a strategic course for accession Crimea to Russia in the near future (1779).