G.A. Grebenshchikova. Zugzwang of Navarino // Petersburg historical journal, no. 1, 2023, pp. 33–46
In 2022, the 195th anniversary of the naval battle by the Navarino fortress near the southwestern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula (Greece), which took place on October 8 (20), 1827, was celebrated. Squadrons of the three allied powers — Russia, England and France destroyed the Turkish-Egyptian fleet, thus depriving the Ottoman Empire of the main naval forces in the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The allies did not lose a single ship. In the battle of Navarino, Russian sailors showed excellent combat and artillery training, acted in a coordinated and fast manner, showed courage and mutual assistance. One of the main results of that battle was the further development of Russian operational-tactical and naval art of the era of the sailing fleet. With the involvement of archival documents of the AVPRI and the RGAVMF archives, this event, significant for the national naval history, is considered from a military-political and military-diplomatic perspective. The main task of the article is to show the algorithm that led the allied admirals near Navarin to the position of zugzwang, and the consequences of that zugzwang for their powers.
Greece freedom, leader naval States positions, protocols for Greece questions, Turkey position, Egyptian Pasha’ actions, Zugzwang off Navarino.
Grebenshchikova, Galina A. — Dr. in History, St. Petersburg State Maritime Technical University.