The article based on declassified documents of the Central Archive of the FSB of Russia introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, examines the activities of one of the bloodiest collaborationist paramilitary formations that were part of the SD in Latvia. The Holocaust, the destruction of residents of “propartisan” villages, the massacre of prisoners of war — a previously taboo story told by its actors themselves: members of the “Arays’s team” arrested after the war.
The author of the article examines impact of Jewish and Belarusian communities on Lithuanian national policies after the collapse of the Russian empire and proclamation of the Republic of Lithuania in February 1918. The reliance on ethnic minorities at the initial stage of the formation of the Lithuanian statehood contributed to its strengthening, made it possible to strengthen not only vertical, but also horizontal ties within the country. Changes in Lithuanian policy towards ethnic minorities associated with the formation of statehood on the basis of the titular (Lithuanian) nation are shown. The author concludes that strengthening the sovereignty and changes in international standing of Lithuania turned ethnic issues into a part of internal policy of the government of the interwar period.