Contents of the issue of Petersburg Historical Journal No 4 (36) 2022
On April 21, 2022, Mikhail Borisovich Sverdlov, an outstanding historian, source specialist, archaeographer and historiographer, died. The scientist’s entire scientific life was connected with the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, where he went a long way from graduate student to chief researcher. Mikhail Borisovich was not only Russia’s leading specialist in history, Ancient Rus` and Russian historiography, but also the author of manuals on the history, theory and practice of studying the history of Russia of the 6th–13th centuries.
One of the most important areas of activity for the Ministry of the Imperial Court was the creation of residence complexes for members of the Romanov dynasty. At the same time, the estates of the southern coast of Crimea rightfully occupy the second place after the capital’s palaces. However, in historiography, the problems of organizing, administering, and financing works have not been sufficiently studied, with the predominance of works of art criticism and cultural studies. The issue of determining, assigning and issuing awards and incentives to persons involved in the creation of residences is also included in this circle.
The article dwells on the issues of labour organisation at forest camps during the siege of Leningrad. The extensive nature of timber harvesting has prevailed before the blockade and continued to persist during the siege. During the blockade, the city administration rejected to use only repressive methods and increased measures to motive workers by the food supply. Despite this, logging continued to be a problem due to the growing demand for wood for Leningrad industry.
The article considers the main tendencies of transformation of conditions and practices of consumption in the USSR as one of the key indicators of change of the standard of living and quality of life of the population — from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1960s. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, statistical data and the results of sociological research, the conclusion is made about the gradual formation in the USSR of a specific, “Soviet” variant of consumption society — “society of consumption under deficit”.
The article, based on materials from the TASS Bulletin of Foreign Official Information, reveals the details of the stay of a delegation of Finnish journalists in the Soviet Union in October 1954. Modern historical knowledge makes it possible to characterize the position of Finnish journalists as objective, and to recognize their assessment of the quality of life in the USSR as quite adequate.
Recent decades of historical studies devoted to the everyday practices of a Soviet individual have revealed a depressing picture of a chronic discrepancy between the interests, needs and sometimes the most pressing demands of people and the nature of surrounding city environment. In the article, this situation is considered as if from the opposite side — what were the positions of the professional community of Soviet architects and urban planners who created said environment.
The article mainly on archival data shows that in the 1970s the urban and rural population of the RSFSR received medical care in hospitals, outpatient clinics and clinics, dispensaries, as well as in feldsher obstetric stations. The article reveals the specifics of medical care for the population in dispensaries and feldsher obstetric stations. It is concluded that in the RSFSR, medical institutions provided the population with multifunctional medical care. However, the backlog of rural medical institutions from urban ones remained.
The author of the article examines impact of Jewish and Belarusian communities on Lithuanian national policies after the collapse of the Russian empire and proclamation of the Republic of Lithuania in February 1918. The reliance on ethnic minorities at the initial stage of the formation of the Lithuanian statehood contributed to its strengthening, made it possible to strengthen not only vertical, but also horizontal ties within the country. Changes in Lithuanian policy towards ethnic minorities associated with the formation of statehood on the basis of the titular (Lithuanian) nation are shown. The author concludes that strengthening the sovereignty and changes in international standing of Lithuania turned ethnic issues into a part of internal policy of the government of the interwar period.
The article based on declassified documents of the Central Archive of the FSB of Russia introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, examines the activities of one of the bloodiest collaborationist paramilitary formations that were part of the SD in Latvia. The Holocaust, the destruction of residents of “propartisan” villages, the massacre of prisoners of war — a previously taboo story told by its actors themselves: members of the “Arays’s team” arrested after the war.