The article considers the main tendencies of transformation of conditions and practices of consumption in the USSR as one of the key indicators of change of the standard of living and quality of life of the population — from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1960s. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, statistical data and the results of sociological research, the conclusion is made about the gradual formation in the USSR of a specific, “Soviet” variant of consumption society — “society of consumption under deficit”.
The article analyzes the works of Belarusian historians devoted to the life history of urban and rural residents of Belarus during the Nazi occupation in 1941–1944. The analysis carried out shows that in the Soviet period, according to the party guidelines, the life of different categories of the population in the occupied territory was considered in Soviet historical literature as a daily battle with the enemy. A characteristic feature of the Belarusian period was the development of new directions in the study of the problem, detailed coverage of various aspects of the occupation regime, the consideration of which in Soviet historiography was determined by brevity.