N.A. Aralovets. Medical care in medical institutions of the RSFSR in the 1970s // Petersburg Historical Journal, no. 4, 2022, pp. 90–101
The article mainly on archival data shows that in the 1970s the urban and rural population of the RSFSR received medical care in hospitals, outpatient clinics and clinics, dispensaries, as well as in feldsher obstetric stations. The main directions of medical and surgical work of hospitals are considered. During these years, the number of hospital beds increased in hospitals, incl. by specialization. The increase in quantity of beds expanded the possibilities of providing the population with timely medical care and, in general, had a positive effect on the health of the population. This phenomenon was evidenced by the low level of lethal outcomes. In hospitals, people mostly died from diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms. At the same time, there was a shortage of specialty beds in hospitals. The increase in the number of beds in hospitals often led to overcrowding of patients in the wards and the difficulties of their treatment. Examinations, diagnosis of diseases, treatment of patients were carried out in outpatient clinics. In the work of outpatient clinics and polyclinics, preventive examinations, primarily of the population subject to examinations, played an essential role. At the same time, it was emphasized that doctors during preventive examinations of the population were not always attentive, they missed the early manifestations of serious diseases. All this reduced the level of medical care to the population and had a negative impact on the health of the population. The article reveals the specifics of medical care for the population in dispensaries and feldsher obstetric stations. It is concluded that in the RSFSR, medical institutions provided the population with multifunctional medical care. However, the backlog of rural medical institutions from urban ones remained, the lack of funding, modern medical equipment, and qualified specialists, which intensified in subsequent years.
RSFSR, medical institutions, preventive examinations, auxiliary departments of polyclinics, morbidity, mortality, life expectancy of the population.
Aralovets, Natalia Arkadyevna — Doctor of Sciences (History), leading researcher at the Institute of Russian history, Russian Academy of Sciences.