M. N. Baryshnikov. Gorchakovs and operations of Russian steam navigation and trading company in Western Mediterranean // Petersburg historical journal, no. 3, 2022, pp. 48–63
In the early 20th century, Russian steam navigation and trading company was the largest shipping firm in Russia. Company, unique among national business, relied on government subsidies for cross border lines content from the 1856 through the 1914. The maritime shipping attracted government officials, including Minister of Foreign Affairs A. M. Gorchakov and his son Mikhail, who associated with board members and major shareholders, providing the administrative resources needed to support overseas operations and enjoying healthy profits for the second half of the 19th century. Based on archival sources, this study shows how Gorchakovs interaction to their business partners included the born Western Mediterranean direction of transportation. In particular, the article reveals tensions between the individual preferences of Gorchakovs and the interests of members of the board and major shareholders. Looking at the case of Russian steam navigation and trading company, the article argues that the backing of Gorchakovs was dual for the company to overcome various kinds of risks and ensure a long-term presence in the Mediterranean Sea. Though some failed, initiatives aimed at development of cross-border traffic in the Western Mediterranean illustrate a concerted effort to use private business and administrative resource to strengthening Russia’s position in this region.
A. M. Gorchakov, M. A. Gorchakov, Russian steam navigation and trading company, sea freight, Western Mediterranean, France, Spain.
Baryshnikov, Mihail N. — Doctor of History, professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Head of the Department of History, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia.